Know your State Odisha

The name Odisha is derived from Sanskrit word “Odra Vishaya” or “Odra Desa”. The ancient province of “Odra desa” or “Or-desa” was limited to the valley of the Mahanadi and to the lower course of the Subarnarekha River. It comprised the whole of the present districts of Cuttack and Sambalpur and a portion of Midnapore. It was bounded on the West by Gondwana, on the North by the wild hill states of Jashpur and Singhbhum, on the East by the sea and on the South by Ganjam.
The Odisha state, which was once a land of Kings and Kingdoms, now boasts of being rich source of natural resources. Its people, temple architecture, classical dance, religions, fairs and festivals, unique handlooms and handicrafts, green woodlands, rock caves, charming blue hills have always attracted historians, tourists and travellers from all over the world. Its rich history, revolutionary freedom movement, fascinatingly sculptured temples and monuments, tribal life characterized by dance, music, rituals, hunting, gaiety and wild ways have become important topics of research for great historians and scholars.
Odisha is located between the parallels of 17.49 N and 22.34 N latitudes and meridians of 81.27 E and 87.29 E longitudes. It is bounded by the Bay of Bengal on the east; Madhya Pradesh on the west and Andhra Pradesh on the south. It has a coast line of about 450 kms. It extends over an area of 155,707 square kms. It accounts about 4.87 of the total area of India.
On the basis of homogeneity, continuity and physiographical characterstics, Odisha has been divided into five major morphological regions :
i)Odisha Coastal Plain in the east
ii)Middle Mountainous and Highlands Region
iii)Central plateaus
iv)Western rolling uplands and
v)Major flood plains.
There are four groups of rivers which flow through Odisha into the Bay of Bengal  They are:
(i)Rivers that have a source outside the State (the Subarnarekha, the Brahmani and the Mahanadi).
(ii)Rivers having a source inside the State(the Budhabalanga, the Baitarini, the Salandi, and the Rushikulya).
(iii)Rivers having a source inside the Odisha, but flow through other states (the Bahudu, the Vansadhara, and the Nagavali).
(iv)Rivers having a source inside Odisha, but tributary to rivers which flow through other states (the Machkund, the Sileru, the Kolab, and the Indravati).
The Chillika Lake is blakish water lagoon located in the southern part of the Odisha coastal plane. Its areas varies 780 sq. kms and 144 sq. kms from winter two monsson months having 71 kms long 32 kms breadth. Its salinity decleans to a minimum during the monsson. But in winter due to the overflow of the tidal water through the narrow opening from the Bay of Bengal, it is maximum.
Ansupa is a sweet water lake located in Banki of Cuttack districts. It is 3 kms in lengh and 1.5 kms in breadth. Sara is another sweet water lake located near Puri. It is 5 kms in length and 3 kms in breadth. Kanjia is another sweet water lake with about 134 acres of area located in Nandankanan of Cuttack districts near Bhubaneswar.
State Animal: Sambar Deer
State Bird: Indian roller (Blue Jay )
State Tree: Kadamba
State Flower            : Ashoka
Some High Yielding Facts:
*According to the 2011 census, it has a total population of 41,974,218.
*(a) Total male 2,12,12,136
*(b) Total female 2,07,62,082
*Total Scheduled Castes Population (2011) 71,88,463 and percentage to total population 17.1 %
*Total Scheduled Tribes Population (2011) 95,90,756 and percentage to total population 22.08 %
*Number of Districts 30
*Number of Sub-divisions 58
*Number of Tehasils 317
*Number of Grama Panchayats 6,227
*Number of Blocks 314
*Total Number of Villages, 2011 51,313
*Number of Assembly Constituencies- 147
*Number of Lok Sabha Constituencies- 21
*Number of Rajya Sabha Seats- 10
Art & Culture :
Odiya Literature
Orissa has an extremely rich tradition of oral literature consisting of innumerable myths, legends and folklore. Like literature in other Indian languages, modern Odiya Literature has developed rapidly during the last one hundred years. Sarala-dasa (Sidheswar Panda) of the 14th century was the first great poet of Odiya, who adapted the classic Mahabharata into simple Odiya and wrote the Chandi Purana and the Vilanka mayana in praise of goddess Durga. Arjuna-dasa wrote the first long Odiya poem called Rama-bibha. Fakir Mohan Senapati is regarded as the father of modern Odiya literature
Important Dance Forms:
Odissi Dance: Odissi dance is the typical classical dance form of the state. It has its origin in the temples.
Dalkhai Dance: It is the most popular folk-dance of western Odisha. Its performance is very common on festivals such as Dussera, Bhaijiuntia, Phagun Puni, Nuakhai, etc.
Chhau Dance: Chhau is an ancient dance form. It originated in the mock fights of the Oriya paikas (warriors) who fought rhythmically to the accompaniment of indigenous music instruments.
Tribal Dance: The Tribals who constitute about one fourth of the total population of Odisha have very many dances of secular, religious and seasonal in character.
Mahari: It  is a ritualistic dance form from the eastern Indian state of Odisha that used to be performed at the temple of Lord Jagannath at Puri
Famous Temples
Lord Jaganath Temple, Puri : It is a sacred Vaishnava temple dedicated to Lord Jagannath.
Car Festival (Rath Yatra)
Celebrated during the month of June to July, or on ashadha sukla ditiya tithi, is the most famous festivals that attracts pilgrims and visitors from all over the world. During the Rath Yatra, deities Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra are brought out of the temple and placed in huge chariot and are pulled by thousands of people. By popular tradition, the chariots are cleaned by the Gajapati Maharaja of Puri with golden broom. The deities are taken to Gundichaghar where they stay for eight days and return to their temple on Bahuda Yatra.
Sun Temple, Konark: The 13th Century temple is in the shape of a gigantic chariot, having elaborately carved stone wheels, pillars and walls.
Lingaraja Temple, Bhubaneswar: The temple is dedicated to Harihara, a form of Shiva and Vishnu. It is one of the oldest temples in Bhubaneswar.
Major Types of Forest
Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests
Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests
Tropical Semi Evergreen Forests
Littoral &Swamp Forests
Plantation TOF
National Parks:
Bhitarakanika National Park
Similipal National Park
Ramsar Wet Lands:
Bhitarkanika Mangroves, Chilka Lagoon
Tiger Reserves:
Similipal Reserves, Satkosia Reserves
Elephent Reserve:
Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserves
Mahanadi Elephant Reserves
Sambalpur Elephant Reserves
Baitarani Elephant Reserves
South Orissa Elephant Reserves
 Educational Institutes in Odisha

List of Universities in Odisha
*Utkal University, Bhubaneswar
*Utkal University of Culture
*Sambalpur University , Burla
*Berhampur University , Bhanjavihar
*Ravenshaw University, Cuttack
*Sri Jagannath Sanskrit  Viswavidyalaya, Puri
*Fakir Mohan University, Balasore
*North Odisha University , Baripada
*Odisha University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar
*Biju Patnaik University of Technology , Rourkela
*National Institute of Technology ( Formerly Regional Engineering College ), Rourkela
*Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology,Burla
*International Institute of Information Technology(IIIT)
*Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Deemed University
*Siksha O Anusandhan University (Deemed University)
*Centurion University of Technology and Management
*National Law University, Odisha, Cuttack
*Central University,Odisha,Koraput
List of National Institutes in Odisha
*Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar
*National Institute of Technology, Rourkela
*Biju Patnaik National Steel Institute , Puri
*Indian Institute of Mass Communication , Dhenkanal
*Central Fisheries Institute, Kousalyaganga
*Central Rice Research Institute,Cuttack
*Institute of Physics,Bhubaneswar
*Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar
*Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar m
*National Research Centre for Women in Agriculture (NRCWA)
*Ocean Science and Technology Cell (OSTC)
*Orissa Telecom Circle
*National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research (NIRTAR)
*International Institute of Information Technology(IIIT)
Technical Institutions in Odisha
*IIIT, Bhubaneswar
*National Institute of Technology ( Formerly Regional Engineering College ), Rourkela
*University College of Engineering, Burla, Sambalpur
*College of Engineering & Technology (CET), Bhubaneswar
*Indira Gandhi Institute of  Technology , Sarang , Dhenkanal
*Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar
*Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Deemed University
*Odisha Engineering College, Bhubaneswar
*College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar
*Silicon Institute of Technology
*Krupajala Group of Institutions
*Institute of Technical Education & Research
*CV Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar
*Dhaneswar Rath Institute of Engineering & Management Studies, Cuttack .
*Gandhi Institute of Engineering & Technology
*National Institute of Science and Technology – Berhampur.
*Ghanashayam Hemalata Institute of Technology , Puri
*Synergy Institute of Engineering and Technology
*Seemanta Engineering College, Mayurbhanj.
ØSamanta Chandra Sekhar Inst.Of Tech. & Mgt.
*Padmanava College of Engineering, Rourkela.
*Satyasai Engineering College, Balasore
*Ajaya Binay Institute of Technology, Cuttack.
*Jagannath Institute of Engineering & Technology, Cuttack
*Majhighariani Institute of Technology
*Centurion Institute of Technology
*Jagannath Institute of Technology and Management
*Centurion School of Rural Enterprise management